Issue InformationIssue Information (Vol 4 Issue 2)
pp. i - vi | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572
Original ArticlesHow pre-service teachers teach fraction comparisons in mathematics pedagogy
Cecilia Sveider, Joakim Samuelsson, Anja Thorsten & Marcus Samuelsson
pp. 167 - 183 | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572.1
The present study aimed to investigate pre-service teachers’ mathematics teaching when responding to virtual pupils’ unexpected mathematical questions concerning how to sort fractions. The research was conducted with 102 pre-service teachers participating in a teacher education program specializing in upper elementary school mathematics. The main data collection strategy took the form of video recordings of teaching sessions involving semi-virtual simulations. The recordings were analyzed through a qualitative explorative analysis process involving three phases, focusing on the object of learning and how the pre-service teachers handled the mathematics content pertaining to comparing fractions. The simulated teaching activity, together with the large sample, allowed us to discover patterns concerning how PSTs teach when they are asked unexpected questions related to fractions. The results show qualitatively different ways of teaching. PSTs draw pupils’ attention to different learning objects by using different representations and more or less correct mathematics. This study offers teacher educators knowledge about how PSTs teach when confronted by students with unexpected questions concerning fractions and can therefore support teacher educators in interpreting students’ mathematics instruction and help them decide how best to support PSTs’ teaching instruction.
Keywords: Preservice teacher, Fraction teaching, Simulation, Variation theory
The moderating role of justice in relationship between assault on duty and job satisfaction
pp. 184 - 200 | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572.2
The purpose of this study is to investigate the function of justice as a moderator in the relationship between assault at work and teachers' perceptions of job satisfaction. The relational survey model of quantitative research methodology was used to ascertain the relationship between the study's variables. The sample of the research consists of 312 teachers working in one of the central districts of a city in the south of Turkey. Data was collected using assault on duty, justice, and work satisfaction scales. The data were analyzed with the help of an SPSS package program. The arithmetic mean, standard deviation, standard error, correlation, multiple regression, and modulating effect plot were used to analyze the data quantitatively. According to the findings of the study, it was determined that there is a negative relationship between an assault on duty and job satisfaction. In addition, as a result of the regression analysis, the moderating role of justice was found in the relationship between assault on duty and job satisfaction. According to this result, negative behavior, such as pressure, violence, intimidation, and deterrence, should be eliminated to improve teachers' productivity and performance.
Even though violence has been present in both public as well as private environments throughout the history of humanity, it has recently emerged as a most prominent concern. Violence has evolved into a social phenomenon that manifests itself in a variety of ways, in practically every aspect of life today. Although behavior aimed at oppression, persecution, intimidation, murder, and deterrence differs from society to society, violence is constantly experienced in every civilization and retains its characteristic of being a part of daily life. Individuals who are exposed to violence are physically and psychologically affected by it, and there are reflections of violence in their private, social, and professional lives. In this context, in open social systems such as schools, there may be different forms of violence (Davenport, Distler & Elliot, 2003).
The existence of difficulties wherever people are is revealed by the occurrence of violence in schools, where educational activities are offered institutionally, as well as in every stage of social life (Atmaca and Öntaş, 2014). Physical, psychological, and verbal attacks on teachers have reached unprecedented proportions in the written and visual media (Turan, Çubukçu & Girmen 2010; Çetin, Danacı & Kuzu, 2020; Kılıç, 2020). Psychological violence, which occurs because of attacks specifically targeting teachers in schools, has also been shown to accelerate the loss of emotion and professional excitement in teachers, as well as the loss of the desire to continue their profession for a long time (Vural & Peker, 2018; Gawas, 2022). These cases require us to determine whether or not there is a severe problem in the educational system. Because schools have the highest human density, violence in schools can lead to a loss of morale, desire, and job satisfaction, negatively impacting school activities, teacher-student relationships, teacher-school administration relationships, and teacher-parent communication. Job dissatisfaction can emerge if employees' expectations from their jobs or work settings are not satisfied adequately (Şakacı, 2018). The goal of this study is to investigate the role of justice as a moderator in the relationship between assault at work and job satisfaction as perceived by teachers.
Assault at Work
Employees have been exposed to and have discussed mobbing for a long time. Animal behavior expert Konrad Lorenz used the word ‘mobbing’ to describe certain animal behavior in the 1960s. (Çetin & Bağcı-Kurt, 2014). Lorenz uses the term to express ‘the reaction of smaller groups of animals to the threat of a large animal (Duffy & Sperry, 2007)’. The phrase ‘a group of children being destructive against a single child’ was coined in 1972 by a Swedish doctor (Heinemann), who subsequently studied the behavior of children in schools against one another (Horton, 2021).
The concept of mobbing, which was first introduced in the literature by Heinz Leymann in a report on ‘Safety and Health at Work’ in Sweden in 1984, is defined as ‘psychological violence at work’ or ‘psychological mobbing’ in Turkish (Karcıoğlu & Akbaş, 2010). Mobbing, according to Leymann, is defined as people who are overly controlling, cowardly, neurotic, and power-hungry (Cited in Özdemir, 2012). The concept ‘mobbing’, which is also expressed as ‘psychological harassment in the workplace’, is used in studies in the field of work psychology to mean that employees harass each other with disturbing and unsettling behavior, treat each other badly; in short, interpersonal psychological violence (Tınaz, 2006).
Psychological violence is classified by Leymann into five categories: attacks that prevent an individual from expressing himself; attacks on social relations; attacks on the individual's social reputation; attacks on the individual's quality of work and life; and attacks that directly affect health (Leymann, 1996). The goal of this study is to pursue assault dimensions towards work. Assault at work can take different forms. For example, even though the mobbed person does well at their job, none of their efforts are recognized, they are not invited to meetings where there should be, and they are forgotten or appear to be forgotten. Their abilities are gradually eroded, and they are forced to live in continual fear of losing their jobs. In other words, professional violence is used to make the person restless and miserable at work. According to Çetin and Bağcı-Kurt (2014), in such a situation, the employee's work performance may deteriorate, and they may even become unable to work.
The following is a list of the assaults experienced at work and on quality of life according to Leymann's (1996) classification:
• Not assigning any special duties to the person,
• Taking back the jobs given to the person,
• Giving the person meaningless tasks,
• Giving the person tasks that require less than his/her abilities,
• Constantly changing someone’s job,
• Giving the person tasks that will negatively affect their self-confidence,
• Giving the person a task below their qualifications, in a way that degrades the person's reputation (Cited by Çekin, 2014).
Individuals can be exposed to psychological violence in a variety of ways, according to Yiğit (2018), including accusations of insufficient effort in the workplace, excessive workload, not appreciating the person's views about their employment, and the threat of dismissal. This situation may cause the individual to be unable to sufficiently enjoy their work and life, thereby lowering their quality of life and preventing them from receiving satisfaction from their employment at the same time.
Job satisfaction was first defined by Taylor and Gilbert in 1918 as ‘working with a method that will create the least stress and fatigue’, but scientific investigations began in the 1920s with the work of Elton Mayo and his coworkers in an energy firm (Çoğaltay, 2012). The idea that individuals are included in the institutions they work at, not only with their monetary assets, but also with their social, emotional, and psychological characteristics has emerged with neo-classical management theories. In line with this understanding, the phenomenon of organizational behavior, which refers to employees' job satisfaction as a result of their work, has begun to receive increasing attention.
Job satisfaction, on the other hand, is defined by Kantar (2008) as ‘the product of the employee's perceptions and expectations about his job’. Job satisfaction is defined as all employees operating in an individual or organizational structure adopting a specific attitude toward their jobs. In short, work satisfaction can be defined as a person's reaction to his or her job’. According to Çakar and Yıldız (2009), job satisfaction is based on the extent to which the needs and values of the employees can be met in the workplace. Job satisfaction, on the other hand, is defined by Demirtaş and Alanoğlu (2015) as a rise in productivity, performance, and quality of work, as a result of individuals' appreciation of their work. The individual's sense of job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors, including the individual's personality, the work environment, and others.
Job satisfaction is influenced by a variety of environmental and personal factors. ‘Job satisfaction is influenced by various factors, such as intimidation, organizational justice, stress, organizational culture, and workload level’ (Keser, 2006). Lam (1996) divides the factors that contribute to job satisfaction into two categories; individual factors and job-related factors. It has been stated that while individual factors are shaped by individuals' age, gender, personality, social personality, education level, marital status, expectations, work experience, and length of service, the factors arising from the job itself are different. These are the general view of the job and its degree of difficulty, wages, working conditions, job security, job stress, an opportunity for advancement, the social appearance of the organization, the appropriate reward system, and the degree of participation of managers and employees in decision-making (Cited by Akkoç, Çalışkan &Turunç, 2012).
The job description of the employees should be made and working conditions should be prepared accordingly. If the employee is given more than one job to do, situations such as fatigue, unwillingness, not completing the given job on time or doing it half-heartedly, alienation from work, and unhappiness may occur (Çoğaltay, 2012).
Eisenberger and colleagues (1986) define organizational support as the perception that the organization values the employee's contribution and cares about their happiness, and the organization carries out the rules, policies, and actions that affect the employees voluntarily.
In the studies conducted in the literature, perceived organizational support is classified as organizational justice, managerial support, and human resources support (Derinbay, 2011). Organizational justice is divided into two groups: distributive justice and procedural justice. While distributive justice includes being fair in the distribution of results or products, procedural justice includes being fair in making decisions regarding the distribution of results or products. Fair treatment affects perceived organizational support because it increases employees' expectations that the organization will reward their efforts, (Derinbay, 2011). Fasola (1995) developed a model to explain the relationship between perceived organizational support and justice. According to the developed model, fair procedures will affect the perceived organizational support of employees, and this will affect job success by increasing emotional commitment.
The reasons for perceived justice include organizational rewards, such as pay, promotion, and job enrichment. On the other hand, justice, managerial support, organizational rewards (such as recognition, payment, and promotion), work conditions (autonomy, stressors, education, organizational size), and similar factors, also affect organizational support perceptions (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). While benefiting from the organization makes the employee feel valued, fair policies and procedures strengthen the belief of employees that they will be rewarded for their efforts to help the organization. Therefore, it is assumed that both procedural and distributive justice have a positive relationship with perceived organizational support (Zagenczyk, 2006).
The Relationship between Assault at Work and Job Satisfaction
People today spend a good amount of their time at work. The amount of time that people spend at work may even exceed the amount of time they spend with their families. Therefore, a social, healthy, peaceful, and psychologically comfortable environment for people is important in business life. Studies show that psychological violence in the workplace hurts job satisfaction (Karcoğlu & Akbaş, 2010). Doğan (2009) found a negative relationship between the level of job satisfaction and the psychological violence directed at teachers from various focuses within the school. Similarly, Grbovic, Pranjic, Selmanovic, Brekalo-Lazarevic and Jatic, (2011) determined that the extreme work conditions and workload that are forced on teachers physically and psychologically in schools, and the lack of administrators and other teachers who do not support them sufficiently, affect their job satisfaction and life satisfaction negatively. Again, Karakuş and Çankaya, (2012) concluded in their study that psychological violence negatively affects teachers' job satisfaction. On the other hand, studies show that as individuals' perceived psychological violence increases, they get less satisfaction from their work and their productivity decreases (Kaygısız & Çakır, 2020). As can be seen in related studies, it can be said that behavior such as pressure, violence, and intimidation perceived by individuals working in organizations leads to situations that negatively affect their job satisfaction.
The Relationship between Assault at Work and Perceived Justice
Aggressive behavior is an aspect of the work environment, whether it increases or decreases in certain cases. For this reason, necessary precautions should be taken in the organization. For example, ensuring security, controlling entrances and exits to the organization, and preventing attacks from outside are all precautions. In this context, it may be counted among the measures that can be taken to prevent the emergence of aggressive behavior and to ensure organizational justice to eliminate a conflict situation. According to Rhoades and Eisenberger (2002), perceived organizational support reduces the psychological and psychometric responses that cause stress factors. Derinbay (2011) states in her research that psychological tension would decrease when the perceived organizational support in stressful situations is provided with emotional and financial support. Kırel (2007), in his study, identifies supportive and risk-reducing suggestions in mobbing management in organizations; managing conflicts; changes in job design; preventing stress in the organization; appropriate leadership behavior; education; personal moral development in organizations; communicating with mobbing victims; professional improvement; and taking legal measures as among the measures to be taken by management. On the other hand, Usta and İrge (2020) state in their study, that if the perception of mobbing increases among employees, the perception of justice will decrease. As can be seen in related studies, they may say that the psychological violence perceived by individuals will decrease by establishing organizational affairs based on equality and justice, effective communication, and with effective leadership behavior in working life.
The Relationship between Justice and Job Satisfaction
When the studies conducted in the related field are examined, it is emphasized that if the perceived justice of the employees increases, their job satisfaction will increase (Alanoğlu & Demirtaş, 2019). Therefore, the intention to leave will decrease (Ulutas, 2018) and the job performance will increase (Dağdeviren, 2019). Özdevecioğlu (2004), in his study on the effects of perceived organizational support and intention to leave, found a positive relationship between organizational support and job satisfaction. Allen, Shore and Griffeth (2003) in their study on the mediation effect of organizational support and participation in decisions, determined that fair reward distribution and the provision of development opportunities contribute to the development of organizational support and that organizational support has a mediating effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Burke (2003) states in his study that perceived organizational support increases job satisfaction and provides a positive mood for personnel. In a study by Allen et al., (2003), the researchers show that employees' participation in decision-making, fair rewards, and development opportunities contribute to the development of perceived organizational support and mediate the relationship between these practices and job satisfaction and organizational commitment to perceived organizational support. Çakar and Yıldız (2009), in their study, show that an organization's satisfaction with employee needs, caring about the contributions of employees, and looking after their interests cause employees to respond with job satisfaction for the benefit of the organization. The value that an organization places on employee contributions can be a sign that the employee is accepted and desired within the organization. This sign can create a high level of performance and job satisfaction by ensuring that the employee has a positive attitude towards his job, as well as the desire to stay in the organization by contributing to positive attitudes towards the organization. Studies have found that one of the factors affecting job satisfaction is perceived justice and that there is a positive and significant relationship between justice and job satisfaction (Edezaro, 2002).
To our best knowledge, there is not any other study analyzing the moderating role of justice in the relationship between assault at work and job satisfaction. This research is expected to contribute to the literature in this context. However, studies show that violence against employees is observed in schools and that teachers are exposed to these practices (Bulut & Gürkan, 2022). An increase in the commitment of teachers to their organization, an increase in their performance towards their work, and an increase in productivity and satisfaction with their lives can be achieved by the satisfaction they get from the work they do. In addition, organizational justice is important in the context of reducing perceived pressure in organizational practices, enabling teachers to concentrate on their work, and increasing their level of organizational citizenship by participating in the decisions of the organization. In this context, the aim is that this research will both provide guidance to those working in the field and contribute to the relevant literature. Another aim of this research is to investigate whether assaults on teachers in schools are related to behavior that breeds organizational behavior, such as teachers' job satisfaction, and whether justice plays a moderating role. Within the scope of the research, answers to the following questions were sought:
This research was carried out with the relational survey model, which is one of the quantitative research methods. Relational studies are studies in which the relationship between two or more variables is carried out without intervention (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006). The relational survey model has two types; correlation type and comparison type. In the correlation type research models, whether the variables change together and how the existing change is, are examined. In the comparison type, groups are formed between at least two variables according to the independent variable, and there is a difference between the groups according to the dependent variable. Whether or not it exists is examined (Karasar, 2006). In this study, the aim is to examine the moderating role of justice in the relationship between assault at work and job satisfaction and to reveal the relationship between the variables. It can be described as a correlation type of research.
The theoretical analysis shows that there is a negative relationship between assault at work and job satisfaction. The following model was developed to discover whether this relationship differentiates as justice increases. According to the research model, the effect of justice as a conditional variable is modeled on the relationship between the independent variable, assault at work, and the dependent variable, job satisfaction.
Figure 1. Research model
Sample of Study
The population of the research consisted of 3,760 teachers working in one of the central districts of a metropolitan city in the south of Turkey in the 2021-2022 academic year. The sample of the study consisted of 350 teachers determined by a simple random sampling method. Simple random sampling is the type of sampling in which the chance of selection of all units in the universe is equal and independent and does not affect the selection of other individuals (Büyüköztürk, Kılıç, Çakmak, Akgün, Karadeniz & Demirel, 2020). This sampling method was used to ensure that the participants selected for the sample had equal chances and could be generalized to the population. However, twenty-eight questionnaires that were filled incompletely or incorrectly were not evaluated, and the research was carried out on the data collected from 312 teachers. Seçer (2015) states that to determine the sample size, the sample number should be at least 5-10 times the number of items. In this study, the fact that the number of items was reached within this range indicates that the sample size was sufficient. 182 (58%) of the teachers participating in the research were female and 130 (42%) were male. According to marital status, 191 (61%) of the sample were married and 121 (39%) were single. Of the sample, 286 (92%) were undergraduate graduates and 26 (8%) were graduates (Master and Doctoral graduates). By school type, 118 (37%) of the sample worked in primary schools, 157 (48%) in secondary schools, and 47 (15%) in high schools. Of the sample, 152 (48%) were between the ages of 20-29, 129 (41%) were between the ages of 30-39, and 32 (11%) were between the ages of 40 and over. Of the sample, 231 (74%) had 1-9 years of seniority, 78 (25%) had 10-19 years of seniority, and 13 (1%) had 20 years or more seniority.
Data Collection Tools
'Assault at Work’, ‘Perceived Justice’, and the 'Job Satisfaction Scale’ were used for data collection. The scales to be used in the research were brought together and a data collection form was prepared, which included the application instruction and the entrance page where demographic information (gender, marital status, education level, branch, seniority, and age) was requested. During the data collection process, it was collected in groups of about 10-20 people or individually by arranging sufficient time in the teachers' rooms at schools. Data collection took an average of twenty minutes. In the data collection process, participation in the research was completely voluntary.
Perception of Assault at Work: The assault at work section, consisting of ten items of the 5-point Likert-type ‘Emotional Violence Perception Scale’ developed by Leymann (1996) and adapted into Turkish by Onbaş (2007), was used. In the study, the Cronbach alpha value, which shows the internal consistency of the scale, was determined as .93 for ‘assaults at work’. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis performed to determine the construct validity of the scale, the goodness of fit values were χ2/df=2.82, RMSEA = .07, GFI= .951, CFI= .974, RMR = .012, AGFI= .912, and TLI= .960.
Perceived Justice: In the study, the 11-item perceived justice section of the ‘Perceived Organizational Support Scale’ developed by Derinbay (2011) was used. The Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient for perceived justice was found to be .93. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, performed to determine the construct validity of the scale, the goodness of fit values was obtained as χ2/df=2.51, RMSEA = .072, GFI= .954, CFI= .976, RMR = .033, AGFI= .913, and TLI= .962.
Job Satisfaction: The Short Form Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) was developed by Weiss, et al., (1967) and adapted into Turkish by Baycan (1985). The scale, consisting of a total of twenty items, including intrinsic satisfaction (twelve items) and extrinsic satisfaction (eight items), is in a 5-point Likert-type format. In this study, the Cronbach's alpha value of the job satisfaction scale was found to be .91. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, performed to determine the construct validity of the scale, the goodness of fit values were obtained as χ2/df=2.92, RMSEA = .07, GFI= .957, CFI= .976, RMR = .043, AGFI= .909, and TLI= .958. It can be seen that the confirmatory factor analysis fit values obtained for all three scales are in the range of perfect fit values (Hu & Bentler, 1999; Kline, 2011).
Data Analysis Process
The data was analyzed in the SPSS statistical package program. Pearson Product Moments Correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationships between teachers' perceived assault at work, justice, and the job satisfaction they experienced. In the study, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the role of independent variables on dependent variables. 'Multiple regression analysis is a type of analysis for estimating the dependent variable based on two or more independent variables (predictive variables) that are associated with the dependent variable’ (Büyükoztürk, et al., 2020). Before performing the multiple regression analysis, the correlation value between the independent variables is below .80, the VIF (variance inflation factor) value is less than 10, and the CI (condition indices) value is 30, in the controls on whether there is a multi-collinearity problem. was found to be smaller than In this context, analyzes were carried out assuming that there is no multicollinearity problem between the predictor variables. In addition, in line with the purpose of the research, a regulatory effect test was conducted to determine the moderating role of perceived justice in the relationship between assault at work and job satisfaction according to teacher perceptions.
Testing of the Moderator
The regulatory variable is stated as a variable that can change the direction and strength of the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable, and differentiate it systematically (Dalal & Zickar, 2012). To test the moderator effect of justice, the analysis was conducted by controlling the gender and age variables to determine the moderator role of justice on the relationship between assault at work and job satisfaction. For this, hierarchical regression analysis was performed with an SPSS package program. First of all, items on each scale were collected. It was then standardized to determine whether the variables had possible multicollinearity (Baron & Kenny, 1986). After this stage, the Z values of the means were calculated and hierarchical regression analysis was carried out in four stages. First, the control variables were entered in the first block of the regression equation. Second, the predictive variable was entered in the second block. In the third step, the regulatory variable was entered in the third block. Finally, in the fourth stage, the predictive variable, the x regulatory variable, was entered in the fourth block (Frazier, et al., 2004).
This research was approved by the Gaziantep University Ethics Committee's Social and Human Sciences Ethics Committee's decision, No. 13, dated 6, December 2022.
In line with the purpose of the research, the tables and analyses of the research findings are given below to determine the relationship between the attacks at work that teachers are exposed to in schools and the result that produces organizational behavior, such as the teachers' job satisfaction and the moderating role of justice. In line with the purpose of the research, the mean, standard error, and standard deviation values of attacks at work, job satisfaction, and justice are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Teachers' Perception Levels Regarding Assault at Work, Job Satisfaction, and Justice
In Table 1, the options for measuring the job satisfaction of the teachers participating in the research, assault at work, and the perceived justice levels are: (1) ‘strongly disagree' is between 1.00 and 1.79 points; (2) ‘disagree' is between 1.80 and 2.59 points; (3) ‘neutral’ is between 2.60 and 3.39 points; (4) ‘agree' is between 3.40 and 4.19 points; and (5) ‘strongly agree' is between 4.20 and 5.00 points. It can be said that the job satisfaction average of the participants is at the level of X=3.42 (agree), so teachers have a high level of perception of job satisfaction. When the average of assaults at work is examined, there is a low level of assault perception at work, with a range of X=1.38 (strongly disagree). It has been observed that the teachers' average scores for perceived justice are at the level of X=2.35 (disagree), so it can be said that their perceptions of justice in the institution they work in are at a low level.
The correlation analysis values obtained as a result of the analyzes carried out to examine the relationship between assault at work, job satisfaction, and justice are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Correlation Analysis Between Assault at Work, Job Satisfaction and Justice
When Table 2 is examined, the variables of the correlation analysis values are between -1 and +1. It was determined that there was a negative relationship (r=-.12) between assault at work and job satisfaction. Once again, it was determined that the correlation coefficient (r=-.12) between assault at work and organizational justice had a negative relationship. On the other hand, it can be seen that there is a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and justice (r=.20).
According to the research model, hierarchical regression analysis was performed to determine the moderator role of justice in the relationship between assault and job satisfaction, and the findings are given in Table 3.
Table 3. Hierarchical Regression Analysis Table Regarding the Moderating Role of Justice in the Relationship between Assault at Work and Job Satisfaction
Dependent variable: Job satisfaction ΔR2 =0.077*** (*p<0.05; **p<0.01, ***p<0.001)
The role of justice as a moderator is tested in this section of the study. For this purpose, the analysis was performed by controlling the gender and age variables to determine the regulatory role of justice in the relationship between assault at work and job satisfaction. To begin with, age, seniority, and gender did not achieve a significant level because of the hierarchical regression analysis performed by entering the first block to control the gender, seniority, and age variables.
Second, the independent variable predicted the job satisfaction of the assault at work at a statistically significant level (p=.048; β=-.111). As a result of the regression analysis, it was seen that assault at work had a negative and significant effect on job satisfaction. According to these results, it can be said that as assaults at work increase, the job satisfaction of employees decreases.
Third, the moderating variable was found to be at a significant level (β =-.167; p=0.003) as a result of the analysis performed by entering justice in the third block of the regression. Fourth, to assess the regulatory effect, interaction variables reached a statistically significant level when the interaction of attack-to-task and justice (AODxJ) was entered into the fourth block of the regression. In other words, the regulatory role of justice was determined (β=.124; p= 0.026; ΔR2 =0.077). When we look at the variance explained within the scope of the findings, it can be said that justice has a moderating effect on the relationship between assault at work and job satisfaction. Ensuring fairness in schools will increase the job satisfaction of the staff. It can be said that an increase in job satisfaction will make schools more productive institutions.
Moderator Effect Graph (modGraph): A graphical representation of the moderating effect of justice on the relationship between assaults at work and job satisfaction is given below (Figure 2).
When looking at the Moderator Effect Graph (modGraph), it is clear that justice is high, assault at work is low, and job satisfaction is high at all levels. When the level of justice is high, the influence on job satisfaction falls as the level of assault at work increases. When people's perceptions of justice are moderate, the effect of change (decreased slope) is also moderate. When there is a low perception of justice, while the assault at work becomes more effective, the effective power of job satisfaction decreases. The moderating effect of justice on the prediction of job satisfaction can be mentioned in this context.
Figure 2. Graph of the Moderating Effect of Justice in the Relationship between
Assaults at Work and Job Satisfaction
DISCUSSION and CONCLUSION
The purpose of this study is to see if justice plays a part in the relationship between the assaults at work that instructors face in the classroom and the conduct that spawns organizational behavior, such as teacher job satisfaction. Firstly, analyses were undertaken in the study to assess the levels of perception among the participating instructors regarding assault at work, work satisfaction, and justice. These analyses reveal that the teachers who took part in the study had a high degree of job satisfaction, a low level of being assaulted at work, and a view of justice that was near to medium. According to these results, it can be said that a high level of job satisfaction and a low level of perception of assault at work are promising results in terms of the effectiveness of the education process. However, it can be stated that more efforts should be made toward judicial practices. It is emphasized that in institutions where employees have a high perception of justice, their motivation and sense of trust will increase, and they will have positive feelings toward their work (Kahveci, Karagül-Kandemir & Bayram, 2019), whereas, in institutions where employees have a low perception of justice, they will experience both individual and organizational unhappiness, as well as psychological collapse (Bulut, 2015). Therefore, it can be expected that teachers feel that they are valued for their work, their professional competence is supported, their efforts are appreciated, and a fair distribution of human and material resources in school will increase both their job satisfaction, productivity, and performance.
Initially, a correlation study was performed to see if there was a link between teachers' perceived assaults at work, job satisfaction, and justice. Following the investigation, it was shown that there is a negative and significant link between assaults at work and job satisfaction. In this setting, it is reasonable to conclude that as assault at work intensifies, teachers' job satisfaction will diminish. As teachers' job satisfaction decreases, it is likely to result in certain negative results, such as a decrease in their performance, a decrease in organizational productivity, a communication breakdown among employees, and a deterioration of the organizational climate. On the other hand, it was concluded that there was a negative significant relationship between assault at work and justice and a positive significant relationship between justice and job satisfaction. Studies have demonstrated a negative association between psychological aggression and job satisfaction, which is consistent with the findings of the study (Grbovic et. al, 2011; Öztürk, 2020). According to these findings, when the number of assaults on teachers in schools decreases, their job satisfaction rises, as does their feeling of justice. At the same time, it is possible that when teachers' perceptions of justice improve, so will their job satisfaction.
On the other hand, it was found that the predictive role of assault at work on job satisfaction was statistically significant (β = -.111; p= .048). As a result of the regression analysis, it was seen that assault was a negative and significant predictor of job satisfaction. In this context, it can be said that an increase in attacks at work is a factor that explains job satisfaction. It can be said that as assaults at work increase, the job satisfaction of employees will decrease, and therefore the performance, productivity, and effectiveness of the employees will be negatively affected. When several studies in the literature (Karcıoğlu & Akbaş (2010), Tınaz (2006)) are examined, there is a negative relationship between psychological violence and job satisfaction. Similar conclusions have been achieved in investigations published in the international literature. There is a negative association between psychological violence and job satisfaction, according to various studies (Einarsen, Matthiesen & Skogstad. 1998; Erdoğan, 2021; Josipović-Jelić, Stoini & Celić-Bunikić,, 2005; Kahrıman, Avcı & Aladağ, 2021) on how psychological violence in the workplace affects job satisfaction. It has been discovered that those who are exposed to violence at work are less satisfied with their jobs. Teachers who are victimized will have lower job satisfaction, and their stress and burnout would probably increase, according to Birlik (2021). As a result, emotional violence can be considered an application area, and an attack at work can be used to explain teacher work satisfaction.
A moderating role of justice was determined in the relationship between assault at work and job satisfaction (β =.124***; p=.026; R2 =0.077) when we looked at the regression analysis of the interaction variables, assault at work and justice (AODxJ) interaction to evaluate the moderating effect. Assault at work has a moderating influence on the unfavorable link between job satisfaction and justice in this circumstance. It is possible to argue that establishing justice in schools will improve staff satisfaction on the job. Personnel satisfaction will improve, allowing them to be more productive for their organizations. It can be said that the fair practices to be applied in schools will have a positive effect on the job satisfaction of the employees there. Like our research findings, Karakuş and Çankaya (2012) stated in their study that psychological violence affects job satisfaction, both directly and through other variables (stress, burnout). In their study, Kahrıman, et al., (2021) concluded that when people's perceptions of justice improve, their job satisfaction improves, while their desire to quit their employment diminishes. According to Çelik (2011), primary school administrators' and teachers' conceptions of justice have a major impact on their job satisfaction. As a result, perceived justice appears to play a role in mediating the negative association between teachers' perceived assault on their responsibilities and job satisfaction.
Given that this study's limitations include educators in primary and secondary schools, a more robust situation could be determined by combining multiple data sources, including pre-school and university levels in a larger sample, or by using qualitative and quantitative methods in different branches and institutions. The same research can be carried out using students as samples. Individuals' job happiness can be improved by attempting to raise awareness regarding the existence and practice of psychological violence in the workplace, as well as taking appropriate measures. According to the findings, school administrators or educational policymakers should concentrate on activities that will improve teachers' perceptions of justice and job satisfaction. The study concludes that teachers' perceptions of justice are not at the intended level, and hermeneutic studies could now be conducted to investigate the causes of this predicament in greater depth. It may be menti
Keywords: Assault on duty, Job satisfaction, Justice, Moderating role
Turkish high school EFL teachers’ AfL practices: Reported vs. actual classroom practices
Manolya Tunçer & Ali Merç
pp. 201 - 221 | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572.3
There has been a recognition of Assessment for Learning (AfL) in language teaching around the world. However, how and to what extent EFL teachers can benefit from AfL in Türkiye is questionable. This study aimed to examine English language teachers’ reported and actual classroom teaching practices and to detect any variation between these practices. A checklist, semi-structured interviews, and tasks prepared for each AfL strategy were employed within an explanatory sequential design. The participants of the study were divided into three groups: checklist respondents (N=111), interview respondents (N=10), and task respondents (N=115). Descriptive statistics were used for the quantitative data analysis, and deductive coding was utilised for the qualitative data. The quantitative data analysis yielded relatively high scores on EFL high school teachers’ AfL implementations demonstrating their reported practices. Still, a group among them stated to learn further on different issues about all these AfL strategies such as “how to assess students’ attainment of the objectives without exams”, “how to increase classroom participation”, “different ways to provide feedback”, “objectivity in self-assessment”, “determining the success of peers in homework”. Interestingly, qualitative results provided somewhat different insights into their actual classroom practices. Although teachers were informed of AfL strategies and even carried out them to a certain extent, these implementations did not completely correspond to the basic principles and, thus, their reported practices. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of AfL practices in the EFL context.
Keywords: English language teachers, assessment for learning (AfL), reported practices, actual classroom practices, EFL high school context
Enhancing academic achievement and retention of sixth-grade students through the implementation of educational games in teaching algebraic expressions
Sevde Kayan & Şevket Aydın
pp. 222 - 247 | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572.4
This study aims to investigate the impact of incorporating educational games in the instruction of algebraic expressions on the academic achievement and long-term retention of sixth-grade students. The sample of the study consists of 31 sixth-grade students. These students are enrolled in schools located in the central district of Niğde. The research employed a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test – post-test unequalized control group, which is a quantitative research method. The data for the study were collected using the Algebraic Expressions Achievement Test, developed specifically by the researcher. The data analysis was conducted using the SPSS program, and it was found that the collected data followed a normal distribution. Therefore, the t-test was employed to compare the groups based on the sub-problems of the research, while the ANOVA test was utilized to compare the groups. The results of the analysis revealed a significant difference between the two groups, with the experimental group exhibiting higher achievement scores compared to the control group after the implementation of the educational games. Furthermore, during the follow-up test conducted six weeks later, it was observed that the students in the experimental group maintained their level of achievement, whereas the control group experienced a decline in their scores. There was no significant difference between the post-test and the retention test, indicating that the impact of the teaching intervention remained stable over time. In other words, implementing mathematics instruction through educational games was found to enhance students' academic achievement and ensure long-term retention.
Keywords: Educational Game, Mathematics, Algebraic Expressions, Academic Success, Persistence
Evaluation of studies regarding women’s representation in the field of social studies education
pp. 248 - 262 | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572.5
Social studies education assumes primary responsibility in emphasizing the place of women in society, teaching their rights, and revealing the roles of women in history. In addition, individuals living in society can learn how to live together as men and women through this education and can learn what rights women have as human beings and what their roles are in history. Social studies should have a special place, especially in terms of women’s representation. In this context, the studies that can guide the level and the way women's representation should be in the components of the Social Studies education process books, curriculum, measurement-evaluation materials, course materials, etc. are important. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the research on the representation of women in Social Studies education. In this qualitative study, data were collected through document analysis. First of all, the databases from which the data would be obtained were determined and the researches that would be included in the scope of the study were selected through keyword groups in the determined databases. In the study, 4 postgraduate theses, 9 articles, and 1 paper were studied. Descriptive content analysis was utilized in the analysis of the studies. When the results of the studies are considered, it is understood that there are negative results about the representation of women or that emphasize a deficiency. On the other hand, it is seen that there are positive results in favour of women in terms of women’s representation. Based on these results, it has been suggested that the number of studies on both the representation of women and how women are represented in Social Studies education should be increased, and women should be represented more in Social Studies education materials and textbooks to guide program developers and textbook writers.
Keywords: Social studies education, Social studies course, Women’s representation, Descriptive content analysis, Research trends
Student, teacher and parent opinions on gamification components used in educational information network (EBA)
Niyazi Aksoy & Ertuğrul Usta
pp. 263 - 281 | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572.6
The gamification approach, one of today's most effective teaching approaches, is also used in the information network (EIN-EBA) and many other platforms. The research was conducted to reveal the views of secondary school students, teachers, and parents on gamification components such as points, leadership boards, and digital crests used in the EBA platform. Within the scope of this study, in which quantitative research methods were used, a questionnaire was applied to 700 students, 700 parents, and 42 teachers from 3 secondary schools. In general, the perceptions of students, teachers, and parents about the score, leadership board, and digital crests used in EBA were positive. Points, leaderboards, and ranges increased student motivation, contributed to academic development, increased access to EBA, and added fun to the lesson. According to the results, students' views did not differ according to gender or school type. At the grade level, 8th-grade students differed. It has been observed that students at this level have a more negative attitude than those at other levels. No difference was found according to the age and income level of the parents. Still, a significant difference was found according to the parent's education level, especially between illiterate and undergraduate graduates. On the other hand, no difference was detected according to teacher gender, age, or professional seniority. Gamification components used in EBA increased students' motivation, made lessons fun, and increased academic success. The EBA platform can have a more systematic gamification setup by including mechanics and dynamics, which are other gamification elements, into the system.
Keywords: EBA, Gamification, Gamification Components
An analysis of speech self-efficacy levels of pre-service special education teachers
Tuğba Sivrikaya & Havva Aysun Karabulut
pp. 282 - 297 | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572.7
This study analyzed the speaking self-efficacy levels of pre-service special education teachers by various variants. Convenience sampling was used to choose the pre-service special education teachers (n=219) enrolled in Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University's special education teacher preparation program. A single survey model was used in the design of this study. Data collection instrument was Speaking Self-Efficacy Scale. In summary, the speaking self-efficacy was high among participants. Although no significant difference was found between participants’ speaking self-efficacy levels by gender, a significant difference was found between speaking self-efficacy levels by age, high school type and grade level. It has been noted that the speaking self-efficacy levels of those over 33 years of age, graduates of other high school types with no equivalent today, and those who attended the fourth grade were higher than the other groups. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that the level of speaking self-efficacy of prospective special education teachers would increase with age and grade level.
Keywords: Speaking self-efficacy, Teacher candidate, Pre-service special education teachers
The case of middle school students’ attitudes towards STEM on predicting their perceptions of innovative thinking
Sümeyye Aydın Gürler
pp. 298 - 310 | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572.8
This study aimed to determine the case of middle school students’ attitudes towards STEM on predicting their perceptions of innovative thinking. The study was carried out using the correlational research design, and the sample consisted of 558 middle school students studying at schools in a district in Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region in the 2022-2023 academic year. Data were collected using the “Personal Information Form,” the “Attitude towards STEM Scale,” and the “Perception of Innovative Thinking Scale.” Descriptive, correlational, simple, and multiple regression analyses were performed for data analysis. Analyses revealed that students had high levels of attitudes towards STEM and high levels of perceptions of innovative thinking. A positive and significant relationship was found between the attitudes towards STEM and its sub-dimensions and the perception of innovative thinking. In addition, it was found that attitudes towards STEM and its sub-dimensions significantly predicted perceptions of innovative thinking. On the other hand, the sub-dimensions of attitudes towards STEM that most significantly predicted perceptions of innovative thinking were found to be 21st-century skills, mathematics, science, engineering, and technology, in order of importance. Based on the findings, recommendations were provided.
Keywords: Attitude towards STEM, Innovative thinking, Middle school student.
An overview of the history teacher training programs of education faculties in Turkey from the perspective of pedagogical content knowledge
pp. 311 - 335 | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572.9
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a field-specific pedagogical approach created by combining the "content knowledge" and "general pedagogical knowledge" bases, which was suggested by Lee Shulman in the mid-1980s and was considered sufficient in teacher training programs until then. It briefly constitutes the "teaching knowledge" knowledge base. This research aims to examine the vocational knowledge courses taught in the high school branch teacher training programs of the faculties of education in Turkey with the PCK dimension in the example of programs that train history teachers. The document review method, a qualitative research method, was used in the research. As a result of the research, it was understood that the vocational knowledge courses taught in the faculties of education in the 1983 program consisted of theoretical general pedagogy courses, as in the previous programs, the teacher training model was changed in 1997, and the courses taught were determined based on PCK. At the same time, an important place was allocated to the applied course hours. However, starting in 2006, a step back from this regulation was started, and the courses aimed at gaining PCK from the programs were reduced and these courses were replaced by general pedagogical courses as before, and the application hours of the courses were reduced. With the 2018 program change, the weight of PCK courses in the program was further reduced, while the practice hours were removed entirely.
Keywords: Teacher training, Pre-service teacher education, History teacher, Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), Teaching profession
Discovering mathematics beyond the classroom: an investigation of secondary-school students' experiences of mathematics in outdoor learning environments
Mustafa Altuntaş & Ibrahim Çetin
pp. 336 - 357 | DOI: 10.29329/jirte.2023.572.10
This study investigates how 7th-grade students engaged in mathematics education in outdoor learning environments and how these experiences influenced their perception of mathematics. The research employed a qualitative approach with a case study design and involved 21 students in the 7th-grade middle school. Structured interview forms, student diaries, and unstructured observation notes were used as data collection tools. The data collected was analyzed using content analysis, resulting in the identification of themes and codes. The study examined the students' expectations for the activities to be carried out in outdoor learning environments. They expressed the highest positive expectations about learning problem-solving techniques and study methods for mathematics. Additionally, the students expressed a desire to learn mathematics enjoyably, overcome their prejudices against mathematics, and understand its logic. Before the research, the students knew that mathematics is used in real-life situations, primarily in calculations and transactions. However, after the study, it was observed that students not only had their expectations met but also gained awareness of the more diverse applications of mathematics in real-life contexts. Additionally, a positive change was observed in their attitudes toward mathematics, and they gained the awareness that mathematics goes beyond being just a subject learned in school and has many real-life applications. Consequently, it was concluded that outdoor learning environments can contribute to mathematics education and positively influence students' perception of mathematics. These findings provide an important perspective for evaluating different learning environments and experiences in mathematics education.
Keywords: Outdoor learning, math education, real life, metaphors.