|  ISSN: 2757-6116

Original article | Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education 2024, Vol. 5(1) 49-74

A comparative analysis of educational administration doctoral programs in the international context: Examples from Türkiye and Canada

Can Sakar

pp. 49 - 74   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/jirte.2024.650.4   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2311-30-0003.R1

Published online: March 18, 2024  |   Number of Views: 20  |  Number of Download: 45


Abstract

This study aims to compare the structural features and program contents of educational administration doctoral programs in Türkiye and Canada, both of which are ranked among the top 1000 universities in the 2023 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) list. This study is an example of comparative educational research as it aims to identify, compare, and analyze similar and different characteristics of the selected doctoral programs in Canada and Türkiye. The study sample consists of six universities, three from Türkiye (n=3) and three from Canada (n=3), selected by the stratified purposeful sampling method and positioned at different points in the ARWU ranking system. Therefore, the University of Toronto, the University of Alberta, and the University of Saskatchewan from Canada; and Hacettepe University, Ankara University, and Ege University from Türkiye, formed the study sample. The data was collected through the document analysis method and analyzed using the descriptive analysis method. Firstly, online information and documents were obtained from the official websites and graduate admission units of the doctoral programs at the selected universities. Secondly, the selected doctoral programs in Türkiye and Canada were analyzed by comparing their admission requirements, degree requirements, and offered academic courses. The results revealed similarities and important differences between the selected doctoral programs in the two countries. Considering educational administration doctoral programs at the top-ranked Canadian universities, this study suggests potential innovations that could be implemented to establish successful and outstanding educational administration doctoral programs in Turkish universities.

Keywords: comparative education, doctoral programs, Türkiye, Canada.


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Sakar, C. (2024). A comparative analysis of educational administration doctoral programs in the international context: Examples from Türkiye and Canada . Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education, 5(1), 49-74. doi: 10.29329/jirte.2024.650.4

Harvard
Sakar, C. (2024). A comparative analysis of educational administration doctoral programs in the international context: Examples from Türkiye and Canada . Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education, 5(1), pp. 49-74.

Chicago 16th edition
Sakar, Can (2024). "A comparative analysis of educational administration doctoral programs in the international context: Examples from Türkiye and Canada ". Journal of Innovative Research in Teacher Education 5 (1):49-74. doi:10.29329/jirte.2024.650.4.

References

    Açıkdilli, R. (2019). Türkiye’de ve Avrupa ülkelerinde rekreasyon eğitiminin karşılaştırılması. [A comparison of recreation education in Turkey and European countries] [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Sakarya University of Applied Sciences. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/

    Ali, I. A., & Abdalla, M. S. (2017). Educational management, educational administration and educational leadership: Definitions and general concepts. SAS Journal of Medicine, 3(12), 326-329. https://doi.org/10.21276/sasjm.2017.3.12.2

    Ankara University. (n.d.). Graduate school of educational sciences. Retrieved from http://egitim.ankara.edu.tr/en/mainpage/ Access Date: 17/11/2023

    Ankara University Bologna Information System, (n.d.-a). About program. Retrieved from http://bbs.ankara.edu.tr/Amac_Hedef.aspx?bno=4135&bot=1744 Access Date: 20/11/2023

    Ankara University Bologna Information System, (n.d.-b). Graduation requirements. Retrieved from http://bbs.ankara.edu.tr/Amac_Hedef.aspx?bno=4135&bot=1744 Access Date: 17/11/2023

    Ankara University Bologna Information System, (n.d.-c).   Course list and crediting. Retrieved from http://bbs.ankara.edu.tr/Ders_Plani.aspx?bno=4135&bot=1744 Access Date: 20/11/2023

    Ankara University Bologna Information System, (n.d.-d).   Qualification requirements and rules. Retrieved from http://bbs.ankara.edu.tr/bolumbilgi.aspx?icerik=KazanilanDereceGereklilikleriveKurallar&bno=4135&bot=1744 Access Date: 20/11/2023

    Ankara University Graduate School of Educational Sciences, (n.d.). Eğitim yönetimi lisansüstü programlarının tanıtımı [Presentation of educational administration graduate programs]. Retrieved from http://egitim.ankara.edu.tr/wp-content/uploads/sites/347/2019/11/8.-EY-TANITIM.pdf Access Date: 17/11/2023

    Ankara University Students Affairs Office, (n.d.-a). Ankara üniversitesi lisansüstü eğitim-öğretim yönetmeliği [Ankara university graduate education and training regulation]. Retrieved from http://oidb.ankara.edu.tr/wp-content/uploads/sites/91/2022/01/lisansustu-yonetmelik-SON-2022.pdf Access Date: 17/11/2023

    Ankara University Students Affairs Office, (n.d.-b). Ankara üniversitesi 2023-2024 eğitim-öğretim yılı güz yarıyılı lisansüstü programlar-ALES/Yabancı dil puanları. [Ankara university 2023-2024 academic year fall semester graduate programs – ALES/Foreign language scores]. Retrieved from http://oidb.ankara.edu.tr/wp-content/uploads/sites/91/2023/06/2023-2024-GUZ-YARIYILI-KONTENJANLARI-VE-BASVURU-KOSULLARI.pdf Access Date: 17/11/2023

    Baki, A., & Bektaş-Baki, B. (2016). Türkiye ve Almanya’nın ortaokul matematik öğretmeni yetiştirme programlarının karşılaştırması [Comparison of secondary school mathematics teacher training programs in Turkey and Germany]. Türk Bilgisayar ve Matematik Eğitimi Dergisi, 7(1), 229-258. https://doi.org/10.16949/turcomat.30594

    Balaban, C. (2020). Diversifying the missions and expectations of doctoral education: Are we losing the distinctive ‘added value’ of the PhD? In S. Cardoso, O. Tavares, C. Sin, & T. Carvalho (Eds.), Structural and institutional transformations in doctoral education: Social, political and student expectations (pp. 325-345). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38046-5_11

    Barnett, J. V., Harris R. A., & Mulvany, M. J. (2017). A comparison of best practices for doctoral training in Europe and North America. FEBS Open Bio, 7(10), 1444-1452. https://doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.12305

    Bingham, A. J., Dean, S., & Castillo, J. (2019). Qualitative comparative analysis in educational policy research: Procedures, processes, and possibilities. Methodological Innovations, 12(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2059799119840982

    Bogle, D., Dron, M., Eggermont, J., & Henten, J. W. v. (2011). Doctoral degrees beyond 2010: Training talented researchers for society. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 13, 35-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.003

    Bolam, R. (1999). Educational administration, leadership and management: Towards a research agenda. In Bush, T., Bell, L., Bolam, R., Glatter, R. & Ribbins, P. (Eds.), Educational management: Redefining theory, policy and practise (p. 194). London: Paul Chapman Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446219676

    Campbell, S. P., Fuller, A. K., & Patrick, D. A. G. (2005). Looking beyond research in doctoral education. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(3), 153-160. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2005)003[0153:LBRIDE]2.0.CO;2

    Coronel Llamas, J. M., & Boza, Á. (2011). Teaching research methods for doctoral students in education: Learning to enquire in the university. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 14(1), 77-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2010.492136

    Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). California: SAGE Publications.

    Daniel, B. (2022). The role of research methodology in enhancing postgraduate students research experience. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 20(1), 34-48. https://doi.org/10.34190/ejbrm.20.1.2253

    Daniel, B., Kumar, V., & Omar, N. (2018). Postgraduate conception of research methodology: Implications for learning and teaching. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 41(2), 220-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/1743727X.2017.1283397

    Delgado-Márquez, B. L., Hurtado-Torres, N. E., & Bondar, Y. (2011). Internationalization of higher education: Theoretical and empirical investigation of its influence on university institution rankings. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 8(2), 265-284. https://doi.org/10.7238/rusc.v8i2.1069

    Dikmen, M., & Ulupınar, S. (2022). Farklı ülkelerdeki hemşirelikte doktora programlarının karşılaştırılması [Comparison of doctorate programs in nursing among different countries].  Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, 15(2), 207-218. https://doi.org/10.46483/deuhfed.880535

    Du Preez, P., & Simmonds, S. (2018). On becoming a doctoral researcher. In P. Du Preez, & S. Simmonds (Eds.), A scholarship of doctoral education: On becoming a researcher (pp. 1-7). Sun Press. https://doi.org/10.18820/9781928357933

    Ege University Graduate School of Educational Sciences, (n.d.-a). TC Ve KKTC uyruklu adayların başvuru yapabilmesi için gereken yeterlikler ve evraklar [Qualifications and documents required for TR and KKTC national candidates to apply].  Retrieved from https://egitimbilimleri.ege.edu.tr/files/egitimbilimleri/icerik/TC%20UYRUKLU%20BELGELER(1).docx Access Date: 17/11/2023

    Ege University Graduate School of Educational Sciences, (n.d.-b). Yabancı uyruklu adayların başvuru yapabilmesi için gereken yeterlikler ve evraklar [Qualifications and documents required for foreign national candidates to apply]. Retrieved from https://egitimbilimleri.ege.edu.tr/files/egitimbilimleri/icerik/YABANCI%20UYRUKLU%20BELGELER(1).docx Access Date: 17/11/2023

    Ege University Information Package/Course Catalog, (n.d.). Third cycle programmes (Doctorate degree). Retrieved from https://ebp.ege.edu.tr/DereceProgramlari/Detay/3/61141/8253/932001?lang=en-US Access Date: 20/11/2023

    Erdoğan, İ. (2003). Karşılaştırmalı eğitim: Türk eğitim bilimleri çalışmaları içinde önemsenmesi gereken bir alan [Comparative education: The field which should be given importance in the studies of Turkish educational sciences]. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(3). https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tebd/issue/26131/275239

    Ergun, M., & Ersoy, Ö. (2016). Hollanda, Romanya ve Türkiye’deki sınıf öğretmeni yetiştirme sistemlerinin karşılaştırılması [Comparison of primary teacher education systems in the Netherlands, Romania and Turkey]. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 22(2), 673-700. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kefdergi/issue/22602/241499

    Güçlü, N., & Yılmaz, G. (2019). Türkiye ve bazı Avrupa ülkelerinin doktora programlarının değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of doctoral programmes of Turkey and some European countries].  Çağdaş Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi. 6(1), 71-89. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/cybd/issue/44881/491327

    Gümüş, S., & Bellibaş, M. Ş. (2013). Eğitim yönetimi doktora eğitiminde uygulama temelli bir yaklaşım: Eğitim doktorası (Ed.D.) [A practice-oriented approach in educational administration doctorate education: Doctor of education (Ed.D.) degree]. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 19(1), 7-29. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kuey/issue/10321/126567

    Hacettepe University Course Catalog / ECTS Information Package. (n.d.-a). Educational administration. Retrieved from https://akts.hacettepe.edu.tr/program_detay.php?birim_ref=AKDBRM_0000000000000000000000661&birim_kod=2113&prg_oid=PRGRAM_0000000000000000000000629&prg_kod=21132&programduzey=5&submenuheader=2 Access Date: 17/11/2023

    Hacettepe University Course Catalog / ECTS Information Package. (n.d.-b). Course structure diagram with credits. Retrieved from https://akts.hacettepe.edu.tr/ders_listesi.php?prg_ref=PRGRAM_0000000000000000000000629&birim_kod=2113&submenuheader=2&prg_kod=21132&dil_kod=2 Access Date: 20/11/2023

    Hacettepe University Graduate School of Educational Sciences. (n.d.-a). Required documents. Retrieved from https://fs.hacettepe.edu.tr/ebe/dosyalar/INGILIZCE/Required%20Documents.docx Access Date: 17/11/2023

    Hacettepe University Graduate School of Educational Sciences. (n.d.-b). Application requirements. Retrieved from https://fs.hacettepe.edu.tr/ebe/dosyalar/INGILIZCE/Application%20Requirements.docx Access Date: 17/11/2023

    Harmandar, D. (2008). Avrupa birliğine üye ülkelerden İngiltere, Yunanistan ve Bulgaristan ile Türkiye’deki beden eğitimi ve spor öğretmeni yetiştirme programlarının karşılaştırılması. [The comparasion of England, Greece and Bulgaria the member countries of European union with Turkey’s P. E. and sport teacher education programmes]. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Sakarya University. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/

    Hochbein, C., & Perry, J. A. (2013). The role of research in the professional doctorate. Planning and Changing, 44(3/4), 181-195. https://www.proquest.com/docview/1515962979?accountid=14556&parentSessionId=8dpH76scpsA26GmeWOutB2MlS%2BMN8BZidVAK8pUJkZg%3D&pq-origsite=360&sourcetype=Scholarly%20Journals

    Huang, X., Ball, R., & Wang, W. (2021). Comparative study of industrial design undergraduate education in China and USA. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 31(3), 565-586. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10798-020-09563-4

    Johnes, J. (2018). University rankings: What do they really show? Scientometrics, 115(1), 585-606. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-018-2666-1

    Kandel, I. L. (1936). Comparative education. Review of Educational Research, 6(4), 400-416. https://doi.org/10.2307/1167463

    Karaman, S., & Bakırcı, F. (2010). Türkiye’de lisansüstü eğitim: Sorunlar ve çözüm önerileri [Postgraduate study in Turkey: Problems and proposed solutions]. Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(2), 94-114. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gopsbad/issue/48557/616554

    Kehm, B. M. (2006). Doctoral education in Europe and North America: A comparative analysis. In: Teichler, U. (ed.) The formative years of scholars series: Wenner-Gren International Series (83), 67-78. London: Portland Press.

    Kılıçer, S., & Şamlı, R. (2021). Veri madenciliği ile Türkiye’deki ve Avrupa birliği ülkelerindeki bilgisayar mühendisliği programlarının karşılaştırılması [A comparison of computer engineering programs in Turkey and European community countries by data mining]. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, (25), 120-130. https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.873157

    Kim M. J., Park, C. G., McKenna, H., Ketefian, S., Park, S. H., Klopper, H., Lee, H., Kunaviktikul, W., Gregg, M. F., Daly, J., Coetzee, S., Juntasopeepun, P., Murashima, S., Keeney, S., & Khan, S. (2015). Quality of nursing doctoral education in seven countries: Survey of faculty and students/graduates. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(5), 1098-1109. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12606

    Krücken, G. (2014). Higher education reforms and unintended consequences: A research agenda. Studies in Higher Education, 39(8), 1439-1450. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2014.949539

    Küçükoğlu, A., & Kızıltaş, E. (2012). Almanya, Fransa, İngiltere, İtalya, Rusya ve Türkiye okul öncesi öğretmen yetiştirme programlarının karşılaştırılması [A comparison of preschool teacher training programs in the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey]. İlköğretim Online, 11(3), 660-670. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ilkonline/issue/8588/106718

    Lambert V. A., Lambert C. E., & Petrini M. A. (2004). East meets west: A comparison between undergraduate nursing education in Japan and in the United States. Journal of Nursing Education, 43(6), 260-269. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20040601-01

    Morpeth, E., Johns, R., & Reller, T. (1967). Educational organization and administration concepts, practices and issues (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs.

    Noah, H. J. (1984). The use and abuse of comparative education. Comparative Education Review, 28(4), 550-562. https://doi.org/10.1086/446467

    Ottoni I. C., Oliveira B. M. P. M. de., Bandoni D. H., & Graça A. P. S. R. (2021). Clock hours of food and nutrition education in curricula of undergraduate nutrition programs: A two-country comparison. Rev Nutr. 34:e200258. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-9865202134e200258

    Özdemir, M. (2010). Nitel veri analizi: Sosyal bilimlerde yöntembilim sorunsalı üzerine bir çalışma [Qualitative data analysis: A study on methodology problem in social sciences].  Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 11(1), 323-343. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ogusbd/issue/10997/131612

    Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533-544. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-013-0528-y

    Papa, R. (2005). The discipline of education administration: Crediting the past. Creighton. T., Harris, S. & Coleman, J.C. (Eds.), In Crediting the past, challenging the present, creating the future (p. 5). Houston, TX: National Council of Professors of Educational Administration.

    Patton, M. Q., (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

    Pollard, R., & Kumar, S. (2021). Mentoring graduate students online: Strategies and challenges. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 22(2), 267-284. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v22i2.5093

    Sabic, N. (2014). Comparative analysis of doctoral education in Europe. Annals of the University of Bucharest / Political science series, 16(1), 129-147. https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-397492

    Sadlak, J. (Ed.). (2004). Doctoral studies and qualifications in Europe and the United States: Status and prospects. UNESCO Bucharest: European Centre for Higher Education. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000136456

    Shanghai Ranking. (n.d.-a). ShanghaiRanking's academic ranking of world universities methodology 2023. Retrieved from https://www.shanghairanking.com/methodology/arwu/2023 Access Date: 06/02/2024

    Shanghai Ranking. (n.d.-b). 2023 Academic ranking of world universities. Retrieved from https://www.shanghairanking.com/rankings/arwu/2023 Access Date: 27/09/2023

    Starratt, R. J. (2003). Centering educational administration: Cultivating meaning, community, responsibility. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Sunay, H. (2018). Türkiye ile Amerika Birleşik Devletleri ve Kanada’daki bazı üniversitelerde uygulanan spor yöneticiliği lisans eğitim programlarının karşılaştırmalı incelenmesi [The comparative investigation study of Turkey and The United States of America and in Canada applicable in some university of sport management undergraduate programs].  SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 16(3), 166-186. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/spormetre/issue/68402/1076282#article_cite

    Teichler, U. (1999). Higher education policy and the world of work: Changing conditions and challenges. Higher Education Policy, 12(4), 285-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0952-8733(99)00019-7

    The Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials, (n.d.). Postsecondary education systems in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.cicic.ca/1242/an_overview.canada Access Date: 08/02/2024

    The Official Gazette of the Republic of Türkiye. (2017). Ege üniversitesi lisansüstü eğitim-öğretim yönetmeliği [Ege university graduate education-training regulation]. Retrieved from https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/12/20171215-3.htm Access Date: 20/11/2023

    The Official Gazette of the Republic of Türkiye. (2016a). Hacettepe üniversitesi lisansüstü eğitim-öğretim ve sınav yönetmeliği [Hacettepe university graduate education-training and examination regulation]. Retrieved from https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/11/20161126-9.htm Access Date: 20/11/2023

    The Official Gazette of the Republic of Türkiye. (2016b). Lisansüstü eğitim ve öğretim yönetmeliği [Graduate education and teaching regulation]. Retrieved from https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/04/20160420-16.htm Access Date: 06/02/2024

    The Official Gazette of the Republic of Türkiye. (1981). Yükseköğretim kanunu [Higher education law]. Retrieved from https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/17506.pdf Access Date: 06/02/2024

    University of Alberta. (n.d.-a). Specialization in studies in educational leadership (SEL). Retrieved from https://www.ualberta.ca/educational-policy-studies/graduate-programs/sel-specialization.html Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Alberta. (n.d.-b). Document checklist and steps for PhD admission applications to studies in educational leadership (SEL). Retrieved from https://www.ualberta.ca/educational-policy-studies/media-library/documents/graduate-programs/document-checklist-for-admission-applications.pdf Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Alberta. (n.d.-c). Document checklist for admission applications. Retrieved from https://www.ualberta.ca/educational-policy-studies/media-library/documents/graduate-programs/document-checklist-for-admission-applications-edps-jan2020.pdf Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Alberta. (n.d.-d). Entrance requirements. Retrieved from https://www.ualberta.ca/educational-policy-studies/graduate-admissions/entrance-requirements.html Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Alberta. (n.d.-e). Doctoral program information. Retrieved from https://www.ualberta.ca/educational-policy-studies/graduate-programs/doctoral-program/index.html Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Alberta University Calendar. (n.d.-a). Doctoral candidacy examination. Retrieved from https://calendar.ualberta.ca/content.php?catoid=39&navoid=12236#conduct-of-examinations Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Alberta University Calendar. (n.d.-b). Course listings. Retrieved from https://calendar.ualberta.ca/content.php?filter%5B27%5D=EDPS&filter%5B29%5D=&filter%5Bkeyword%5D=&filter%5B32%5D=1&filter%5Bcpage%5D=1&cur_cat_oid=36&expand=&navoid=11383&search_database=Filter&filter%5Bexact_match%5D=1#acalog_template_course_filter Access Date: 16/11/2023

    University of Saskatchewan. (n.d.-a). Admission requirements. Retrieved from https://grad.usask.ca/admissions/admission-requirements.php#Minimumadmissionrequirements Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Saskatchewan. (n.d.-b). Educational administration. Retrieved from https://grad.usask.ca/programs/educational-administration.php Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Saskatchewan. (n.d.-c). Degree requirements. Retrieved from https://programs.usask.ca/grad-studies/educational-administration/ed-admin-phd.php#AdmissionRequirements Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Saskatchewan. (n.d.-d). Doctor of philosophy degree requirements. Retrieved from https://programs.usask.ca/grad-studies/policies.php#DoctorofPhilosophyDegreeRequirements Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Saskatchewan. (n.d.-e). Course descriptions. Retrieved from https://catalogue.usask.ca/?subj_code=EADM&cnum= Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Toronto School of Graduate Studies. (n.d.-a). Educational leadership and policy. Retrieved from https://www.sgs.utoronto.ca/programs/educational-leadership-and-policy/ Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Toronto School of Graduate Studies. (n.d.-b). General regulations. Retrieved from https://sgs.calendar.utoronto.ca/general-regulations#4 Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Toronto School of Graduate Studies. (n.d.-c). English-language proficiency testing. Retrieved from https://www.sgs.utoronto.ca/future-students/admission-application-requirements/english-language-proficiency-testing/ Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Toronto Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. (n.d.-a). Doctor of philosophy in educational leadership & policy. Retrieved from https://www.oise.utoronto.ca/lhae/doctoral-degrees/doctor-philosophy-educational-leadership-policy Access Date: 14/11/2023

    University of Toronto Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. (n.d.-b). Courses & thematic areas. Retrieved from https://www.oise.utoronto.ca/home/lhae/educational-leadership-policy-program/courses_thematic_areas-elp Access Date: 14/11/2023

    Yağan, S. A., & Çubukçu, Z. (2019). Türkiye ve İngiltere doktora programlarının karşılaştırılması [The comparison of Turkey and England doctoral programs]. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi, 9(1), 134-143. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1712139

    Yao, Z., Yan, T., & Hu, M. (2022). Comparison of undergraduate chemical engineering curricula between China and America universities based on statistical analysis. Education for Chemical Engineers, 38, 55-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ece.2021.10.003

    Yılmaz, G., & Tepe, N. (2019). Eğitim yönetimi doktora programlarının karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmesi [Comparative analysis of educational administration and supervision PHD programs]. Turkish Studies Sciences, 14(6), 3489-3517. http://dx.doi.org/10.29228/TurkishStudies.39287